Theory, broadly speaking, including both the literary and mathematical varieties.

Meaning, Context, and Algebraic Data Types

A few years ago, I read a paper making a startling argument. Its title was “The Derivative of a Regular Type is its Type of One-Hole Contexts.” I’m not entirely sure how I found it or why I started reading it, but by the time I was halfway though it, I was slapping myself on the forehead: it was so brilliant, and yet so obvious as to be almost trivial — how could nobody have thought of it before?

The idea was that if you take an algebraic data type — say something simple like a plain old list — and poke a hole in it, you get a new data type that looks like a derivative of the first data type. That probably sounds very abstract and uninteresting at first, especially if you aren’t very familiar with algebraic data types. But once you understand them, the idea is simple. And I think it has ramifications for people interested in natural language: it tells us something about the relationship between meaning and context. In particular, it could give us a new way to think about how semantic analysis programs like word2vec function: they perform a kind of calculus on language.

What’s an Algebraic Data Type?

An algebraic data type is really just a regular data type — seen through a particular lens. So it’s worth taking a moment to think through what a regular data type is, even if you’re already familiar with the concept.

A regular data type is just an abstract representation of the kind of data being stored or manipulated by a computer. Let’s consider, as a first example, the simplest possible item of data to be found in a modern computer: a bit. It can take just two values, zero and one. Most programming languages provide a type describing this kind of value — a boolean type. And values of this type are like computational atoms: every piece of data that modern computers store or manipulate is made of combinations of boolean values.1

So how do we combine boolean values? There are many ways, but here are two simple ones that cover a lot of ground. In the first way, we take two boolean values and declare that they are joined, but can vary independently. So if the first boolean value is equal to zero, the second boolean value may be equal to either zero or one, and if the first boolean value is equal to one, the second boolean value may still be equal to either zero or one. And vice versa. They’re joined, but they don’t pay attention to each other at all. Like this:

1) 0 0
2) 0 1
3) 1 0
4) 1 1

In the second way, we take two boolean values and declare that they are joined, but cannot vary independently — only one of them can be active at a given time. The others are disabled (represented by “*” here) — like this:

1) * 0
2) * 1
3) 0 *
4) 1 *

Now suppose we wanted to combine three boolean values. In the first case, we get this:

1) 0 0 0
2) 0 0 1
3) 0 1 0
4) 0 1 1
5) 1 0 0 
6) 1 0 1
7) 1 1 0
8) 1 1 1

And in the second case, we get this:

1) * * 0
2) * * 1
3) * 0 *
4) * 1 *
5) 0 * *
6) 1 * *

At this point, you might start to notice a pattern. Using the first way of combining boolean values, every additional bit doubles the number of possible combined values. Using the second way, every additional bit only adds two to the number of possible combined values.

This observation is the basis of algebraic type theory. In the language of algebraic data types, the first way of combining bits produces a product type, and the second way of combining bits produces a sum type. To get the number of possible combined values of a product type, you simply multiply together the number of possible values that each component type can take. For two bits, that’s 2 \times 2; for three bits, that’s 2 \times 2 \times 2; and for n bits, that’s 2 ^ n. And to get the number of possible combined values of a sum type, you simply add together the number of possible values that each component type can take: 2 + 2, or 2 + 2 + 2, or 2 \times n.

Pretty much all of the numerical types that a computer stores are product types of bits. For example, a 32-bit integer is just the product type of 32 boolean values. It can represent numbers between 0 and 2 ^{32} - 1 (inclusive), for a total of 2 ^{32} values. Larger numbers require more binary digits to store.

Sum types are a little more esoteric, but they become useful when you want to represent things that can come in multiple categories. For example, suppose you want to represent a garden plot, and you want to have a variable that stores the number of plants in the plot. But you also want to indicate what kind of plants are in the plot — basil or thyme, say. A sum type provides a compact way to represent this state of affairs. A plot can be either a basil plot, or a thyme plot, but not both. If there can be up to twenty thyme plants in a thyme plot, and up to sixteen basil plants in a basil plot, the final sum type has a total of thirty-six possible values:

Basil   Thyme
*       1
*       2
...     ...
*       19    
*       20
1       *
2       *
...     ...
15      *
16      *

If you’ve done any programming, product types probably look pretty familiar, but sum types might be new to you. If you want to try a language that explicitly includes sum types, take a look at Haskell.

Poking Holes in Types

Given this understanding of algebraic data types, here’s what it means to “poke a hole” in a type. Suppose you have a list of five two-bit integers:

| a | b | c | d | e |

This new variable’s type is a product type. It can take this value:

| 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 |

Or this value:

| 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 |

Or this value…

| 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 2 |

And so on, continuing through values like these:

| 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 3 |
| 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 |
| 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 1 |
| 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 2 |
| 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 3 |
| 0 | 0 | 0 | 2 | 0 |

All the way to these final values:

| 3 | 3 | 3 | 2 | 3 |
| 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 0 |
| 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 1 |
| 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 2 |
| 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 |

The total number of possible values for a variable of this type is (2 ^ 2) ^ 5 = 4 ^ 5 = 4 * 4 * 4 * 4 * 4 = 1024.

Now think about what happens if you disable a single slot. The result is a list type with a hole in it. What does a variable with this new type look like? Well, say you disable the first slot. You get something that looks like this — a list with a hole in the first slot:

| * | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 |

Now that there’s a hole in the first slot, there are only 4 * 4 * 4 * 4 = 256 possible values this variable can take.

| * | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 |
| * | 0 | 0 | 0 | 2 |

We could also poke a hole in any of the other slots:

| 0 | * | 0 | 0 | 0 |
| 0 | 0 | * | 0 | 0 |
| 0 | 0 | 0 | * | 0 |
| 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | * |

But the hole can only be in one of the slots at any given time. Sound familiar? You could say that this is the “sum type” of each of those one-hole types. Each possible placement of the hole adds to (rather than multiplying) the number of possible values. There are five different places for the hole to go, and for each of those, there are 256 possible values. That’s a total of 4 ^ 4 + 4 ^ 4 + 4 ^ 4 + 4 ^ 4 + 4 ^ 4 = 5 \times 4 ^ 4.

Now suppose we make this a little more general, by replacing that 4 with an x. This way we can do this same thing with slots of any size — slots that can hold ten values, or 256 values, or 65536 values, or whatever. For the plain list type, that’s a total of x ^ 5 possible values. And for the list-with-a-hole, that’s 5 x^4 possible values. And now let’s go even further and replace the number of slots with an n. That way we can have any number of slots — five, ten, fifty, whatever you like. Now, the plain list has a total of x ^ n possible values, and the list-with-a-hole has n x ^ {(n - 1)} possible values.

If you ever took calculus, that probably looks very familiar. It’s just the power rule! This means you can take data types and do calculus with them.

One-Hole Contexts

I think that’s pretty wild, and it kept my head spinning for a couple of years when I first read about it. But I moved on. Fast forward to a few weeks ago when I started really reading about word2vec and learning how it works: it finds vectors that are good at predicting the word in the middle of an n-gram, or are good at predicting an n-gram given a word in the middle. Let’s start with the first case — say you have this incomplete 5-gram:

I went _ the store

What word is likely to be in there? Well, “to” is a good candidate — I’d venture a guess that it was the first word that popped into your mind. But there are other possibilities. “Past” might work. If the n-gram is part of a longer sentence, “from” is a possibility. And there are many others. So word2vec will group those words together in its vector space, because they all fit nicely in this context, and in many others.

But look again at that sentence — it’s a sequence of words with a hole in it. So if in this model, a word’s meaning is defined by the n-grams in which it may be embedded, then the type of a word’s meaning is a list-with-a-hole — just like the derivative of the list type that we were looking at above.

The basic idea of word2vec isn’t extremely surprising; from a certain perspective, this is an elaboration of the concept of a “minimal pair” in linguistics. If you know that “bat” means a thing you hit a ball with, and “mat” means a thing you wipe your feet on, then you can tell that /b/ and /m/ are different phonemes, even though they both involve putting your lips together: the difference between their sounds makes a difference in meaning. Conversely, if the difference between two sounds doesn’t make a difference in meaning, then the sounds must represent the same phoneme. “Photograph” pronounced with a distinct “oh” sound in the second syllable is the same word as “photograph” pronounced with an “uh” sound in the second syllable. They’re different sounds, but they both make the same word here, so they represent the same phoneme.

The thinking behind word2vec resembles the second case. If you can put one word in place of another in many different contexts and get similar meanings, then the two words must be relatively close together in meaning themselves.

What is surprising is that by pairing these two concepts, we can link the idea of derivatives in calculus to the idea of meaning. We might even be able to develop a model of meaning in which the meaning of a sentence has the same type as the derivative of that sentence’s type. Or — echoing the language of the paper I began with — the meaning type of a sentence type is its type of one-hole contexts.

  1. But don’t take this for granted. There have been — and perhaps will be in the future — ternary computers

The Markov Chains of La Grande Jatte A Short Introduction to Gibbs Sampling

Topic modeling has been attracting the attention of scholars in the digital humanities for several years now, and quite a few substantive introductions to the subject have been written. Ben Schmidt offered a brief overview of the genre in 2012, and the list he provided is still fairly comprehensive, as far as I can tell.1 My current favorite is an entry from Miriam Posner and Andy Wallace that emphasizes the practical side of topic modeling — it’s great for bootstrapping if you’re new to the subject.

This post will cover something slightly different. When I started to delve into the details of topic modeling, I quickly realized that I needed to create my own implementation of Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) to begin understanding how it worked. I eventually did, but even with all the terrific resources available, I ran into several significant roadblocks.2 The biggest one for me was figuring out Gibbs sampling. A lot of introductions to topic modeling don’t spend much time on Gibbs sampling, for understandable reasons. It’s not part of LDA properly speaking, so you don’t need to understand how it works to understand the fundamentals of LDA. In fact, in his original description of LDA, David Blei didn’t even talk about Gibbs sampling — he used a thing called “variational inference,” which is a wall of abstraction that I still haven’t managed to scale.

Fortunately, Gibbs sampling yielded to my efforts more readily. And although it’s not strictly necessary to understand Gibbs sampling to understand LDA, I think it’s worth understanding for other reasons. In fact, I’ve come to believe that Gibbs sampling is a wonderful introduction to the rapidly evolving world of machine learning — a world that I think at least a subset of digital humanists should have much broader knowledge of.

What is Gibbs sampling?

Here’s my attempt at a definition: Gibbs sampling is a way to build a picture of a global probability distribution when you only have local information about that distribution. That’s more of a description than a definition; other techniques do that too. But I like it because it shows what Gibbs sampling is good at. You can use it to take lots of little bits of information — like individual word counts — and construct a global view of those bits.

Suppose that you are temporarily Georges Seurat, but you couldn’t make it to the Island of La Grande Jatte today. Instead of seeing it for yourself or looking at someone else’s picture, you decide to consult with Sam, your omniscient imaginary friend. Sam supplies you with some probabilities like so:

An image of Georges Seruat's La Grande Jatte, at four different levels of detail.
What a Markov chain knows at first (top). What it knows after a long time (bottom).

Given that you have just put a green dot here (Sam points at a spot on the canvas):

  • The probability is \mu that your next dot will be an orange dot there.
  • The probability is \eta that your next dot will be a blue dot over there.
  • The probability is … [more tiny numbers]

This list goes on until every possible location on the canvas and every possible color has a probability associated with it. It turns out they all add up to one. (They’re probabilities, after all!) Then Sam gives you another list that starts with another location and possible color. You get lists from every possible point and color on the canvas, to every possible point and color on the canvas. Now, at any moment while painting, you can look up the dot you’ve just painted in the table. You can then use that dot’s transition probabilities to decide how to paint the next one.

So you just start painting dots. And lo and behold, after a really long time, you’re looking at a picture of La Grande Jatte.

What I’ve just described is called a Markov chain.3 Gibbs sampling adds just one more little twist. But before I get to that, I want to explain why this is possible. Sam’s table of probabilities has to meet three conditions for this to work. The first two dictate the kinds of movements between points and colors that the table of probabilities must allow. First, the table of probabilities must allow you to get from any point and color in the painting to any other. It doesn’t have to allow you to get from one to the other in a single step, but it has to allow you to get there eventually. And second, the table of probabilities must allow you to get from one point and color to another at irregular intervals. So if it aways takes you two, or four, or eight steps to get from node A to node B, and never any other number of steps, then the table doesn’t satisfy this condition, because the number of steps required to get from A to B is always a multiple of two.

Together, these conditions tell us that the Markov chain has what’s called a stationary distribution.4 It’s a probability distribution over every point and possible color on the canvas. It tells you how often you will paint a particular dot, on average, if you keep painting forever. If Sam’s table meets these first two conditions, then we can prove that it has a stationary distribution, and we can even prove that its stationary distribution is unique. At that point, it only has to meet one more condition: its stationary distribution must be a painting of La Grande Jatte.

What’s neat about this is that none of the individual transition probabilities know much about the painting. It’s only when they get together and “talk” to one another for a while that they start to realize what’s actually going on.5 That’s what Gibbs sampling allows.

The Catch

The difficult part of using Markov chains this way is figuring out the transition probabilities. How many coordinates and color codes would you need to create an adequate representation of a Seurat painting? I’m not sure, but I bet it’s a number with a lot of zeros at the end. Call it N. And to create the full transition table, you’d have to calculate and store probabilities from each of those values to each of those values. That’s a big square table with N rows and columns. These numbers get mind-bogglingly huge for even relatively simple problems.

Gibbs sampling uses a clever trick to get around that issue. It’s based on the simple insight that you don’t have to change every dimension at once. Instead of jumping directly from one point and color to another — from (x_1, y_1, c_1) to (x_2, y_2, c_2) — you can move along one dimension at a time, jumping from (x_1, y_1, c_1) to (x_2, y_1, c_1) to (x_2, y_2, c_1) to (x_2, y_2, c_2), and so on. It turns out that calculating probabilities for those transitions is often much easier and faster — and the stationary distribution stays the same.

The skeleton of a ten-dimensional hypercube.
See this crazy incomprehensible rat’s nest? It’s the skeleton of a topic hypercube for a corpus just ten words long.

In effect, this means that although you might not be able to calculate all the transition probabilities in the table, you can calculate all the relevant translation probabilities pretty easily. This makes almost no practical difference to you as you paint La Grande Jatte. It just means you do three lookups instead of one before painting the next dot. (It also might mean you don’t paint the dot every time, but only every fifth or tenth time, so that your dots aren’t too tightly correlated with one another, and come closer to being genuinely independent samples from the stationary distribution.)

In the context of the LDA model, this means that you don’t have to leap from one set of hypothetical topic labels to an entirely different one. That makes a huge difference now, because instead of working with a canvas, we’re working with a giant topic hypercube with a dimension for every single word in the corpus. Given that every word is labeled provisionally with a topic, we can just change each topic label individually, over and over, using transition probabilities from this formula that some really smart people have helpfully derived for us. And every time we save a set of topic labels, we’ve painted a single dot on the canvas of La Grande Jatte.6

So What?

I began this post with a promise that you’d get something valuable out of this explanation of Gibbs sampling, even though it isn’t part of the core of LDA. I’m going to offer three brief payoffs now, which I hope to expand in later posts.

First, most implementations of LDA use Gibbs sampling, and at least some of the difficulties that LDA appears to have — including some identified by Ben Schmidt — are probably more related to issues with Gibbs sampling than with LDA. Think back to the requirement that to have a stationary distribution, a Markov chain has to be able to reach every possible state from every other possible state. That’s strictly true in LDA, because the LDA model assumes that every word has a nonzero probability of appearing in every topic, and every topic has a nonzero probability of appearing in every document. But in some cases, those probabilities are extremely small. This is particularly true for word distributions in topics, which tend to be very sparse. That suggests that although the Markov chain has a stationary distribution, it may be hard to approximate quickly, because it will take a very long time for the chain to move from one set of states to another. For all we know, it could take only hours to reach a result that looks plausible, but years to reach a result that’s close to the actual stationary distribution. Returning to the Grand Jatte example, this would be a bit like getting a really clear picture of the trees in the upper-right-hand corner of the canvas and concluding that the rest must be a picture of a forest. The oddly conjoined and split topics that Schmidt and others have identified in their models seem a little less mysterious once you understand the quirks of Gibbs sampling.

Second, Gibbs sampling could be very useful for solving other kinds of problems. For some time now, I’ve had an eccentric obsession with encoding text into prime numbers and back into text again. The source of this obsession has to do with copyright law and some of the strange loopholes that the idea-expression dichotomy creates.7 I’m going to leave that somewhat mysterious for now, and jump to the point: part of my obsession has involved trying to figure out how to automatically break simple substitution cyphers. I’ve found that Gibbs sampling is surprisingly good at it. This is, I’ll admit, a somewhat peripheral concern. But I can’t get rid of the sense that there are other interesting things that Gibbs sampling could do that are more directly relevant to digital humanists. It’s a surprisingly powerful and flexible technique, and I think its power comes from that ability to take little bits of fragmentary information and assemble them into a gestalt.8

Third, I think Gibbs sampling is — or should be — theoretically interesting for humanists of all stripes. The theoretical vistas opened up by LDA are fairly narrow because there’s something a little bit single-purpose about it. Although it’s remarkably flexible in some ways, it makes strong assumptions about the structure of the data that it analyzes. Those assumptions limit its possible uses as a model for more speculative thinking. Gibbs sampling makes fewer such assumptions; or to be more precise, it accommodates a wider range of possible assumptions. MALLET is a tool for pounding, and it does a great job at it. But Gibbs sampling is more like the handle of a bit-driver. It’s only half-complete — assembly is required to get it to do something interesting — but it’s the foundation of a million different possible tools.

It’s the kind of tool a bricoleur ought to own.

  1. If you know of new or notable entries that are missing, let me know and I’ll add them to a list here. 
  2. You can take a look here. Caveat emptor! I called it ldazy for a reason — it stands for “LDA implementation by someone who is too lazy” to make further improvements. It’s poorly-commented, inefficient, and bad at estimating hyperparameters. (At least it tries!) Its only strength is that it is short and written in pure Python, which means that its code is somewhat legible without additional comment. 
  3. After writing this, I did some Googling to see if anybody else had thought about Markov chains in terms of pointillism. I didn’t find anything that takes quite the same approach, but I did find an article describing a way to use Markov chains to model brushstrokes for the purpose of attribution! 
  4. In case you want to talk to math people about this, these conditions are respectively called “irreducibility” and “aperiodicity.” 
  5. Sorry, I couldn’t resist. 
  6. I’m risking just a bit of confusion by extending this analogy so far, because it’s tempting to liken colors to topics. But that’s not quite right. To perfect this analogy, expand the canvas into a three-dimensional space in which all green dots occupy one plane, all orange dots occupy another, and so on. In this scheme, the dots are only present or absent — they are themselves “colorless,” and only take on a color insofar as one of the dimensions is interpreted as a color dimension. And suppose the x, y, and c variables can take values between 1 and 50. Now each dimension could just as easily represent a single word in a three-word corpus, and each dot in this three-dimensional space could represent a sequence of topic assignments for a fifty-topic model — with a value between 1 and 50 for each word in the corpus. 
  7. “In no case does copyright protection for an original work of authorship extend to any idea, procedure, process, system, method of operation, concept, principle, or discovery, regardless of the form in which it is described, explained, illustrated, or embodied in such work” 17 USC 102
  8. For another way of thinking about the possibilities of Gibbs sampling and other so-called Monte Carlo Markov chain (MCMC) methods, see the wonderful sub-subroutine post on using MCMC to learn about bread prices during the napoleonic wars.

A Sentimental Derivative

Ben Schmidt’s terrific insight into the assumptions that the Fourier transform imposes on sentiment data has been sinking in, and I have a left-field suggestion for anyone who cares to check it out. I plan to investigate it myself when I have the time, but I’ve decided to broadcast it now.

In the imaginary universe of Fourier land, all texts start and end at the same sentiment amplitude. This is clearly incorrect, as I see it.1 But what could we say about the beginning and end of texts that might hold up?

One possibility is that all texts might start and end with a flat sentiment curve. That is, at the very beginning and end of a text, we can assume that the valence of words won’t shift dramatically. That’s not clearly incorrect. I think it’s even plausible.

Now consider how we talk about plot most of the time: we speak of rising action (slope positive), falling action (slope negative), and climaxes (local and global maxima). That’s first derivative talk! And the first derivative of a flat curve is always zero. So if the first derivative of a sentiment curve always starts and ends at zero, then at least one objection to the Fourier transform approach can be worked around. For example, we could simply take the first finite difference of a text’s sentiment time series, perform a DFT and low-pass filter, do a reverse transform, and then do a cumulative sum (i.e. a discrete integration) of the result.2

What would that look like?

  1. Nonetheless, I think there’s some value to remaining agnostic about this for some time still — even now, after the dust has settled a bit. 
  2. You might be able to skip a step or two. 

What’s a Sine Wave of Sentiment?

Over the last month a fascinating series of debates has unfolded over Matt Jockers’ Syuzhet package. The debates have focused on whether Syuzhet’s smoothing strategy, which involves using a Fourier transform and low-pass filter, is appropriate. Annie Swafford has produced several compelling arguments that this strategy doesn’t work. And Ted Underwood has responded with what is probably the most accurate assessment of our current state of knowledge: we don’t know enough yet to say anything at all.

I have something to add to these debates, but I’ll begin by admitting that I haven’t used Syuzhet. I’m only just now starting to learn R. (I’ve been using Python / Numpy / Scipy / Pandas in my DH work so far.) My objection is not based on data or validation, statistical or otherwise. It’s based on a more theoretical line of reasoning.1

I broadly agree with Annie Swafford’s assessment: it looks to me like this strategy is producing unwanted ringing artifacts.2 But Matt Jockers’ counterargument troubles her line of reasoning — he suggests that ringing artifacts are what we want. That doesn’t sound right to me, but that argumentative move shows what’s really at stake here. The question is not whether ringing artifacts distort the data relative to some ground truth. There’s no doubt about that — this is, after all, a way of distorting rough data to make it smooth. The question is whether we want this particular kind of distortion. My issue with using Fourier transforms to represent sentiment time series data is that we have no clear theoretical justification to do so. We have no theoretical reason to want the kind of distortion it produces.

If we hope to use data mining tools to produce evidence, we need to think about ways to model data that are suited to our own fields. This is a point Ted Underwood made early on in the conversation about LDA, well before much had been published by literary scholars on the subject. The point he made is as important now as then: we should do our best to ensure that the mathematical models we use have clear and concrete interpretations in terms of the physical processes that we study and seek to understand: reading, writing, textual distribution, influence, and so on. This is what Syuzhet fails to do at the smoothing and filtering stage right now. I think the overall program of Syuzhet is a promising one (though there may be other important aspects of the thing-that-is-not-fabula that it ignores). But I think the choice of Fourier analysis for smoothing is not a good choice — not yet.

The Dirichlet Distribution
The Dirichlet distribution for three categories is defined over values of X, Y, and Z adding up to 1

A Fourier transform models time series data as a weighted sum of sine waves of different frequencies. But I can think of no compelling reason to represent a sequence of sentiment measurements as a sum of sine waves. Consider LDA as a point of comparison (as Jockers has). There’s a clear line of reasoning that supports our using the Dirichlet distribution as a prior. One could certainly argue that the Dirichlet density has the wrong shape, but its support — the set of values over which it is defined — has the right shape.3 It’s a set of N distinct real-valued variables that always sum to one. (In other words, it’s a distribution over the ways to break a stick into N parts.) Since we have good reasons to think about language as being made of distinct words, thinking in terms of categorical probability distributions over those words makes sense. And the Dirichlet distribution is a reasonable prior for categorical distributions because its support consists entirely of categorical probability distributions (ways to break a stick). Even if we were to decide that we need a different prior distribution, we would probably still choose a distribution defined over the same support.4

Wavelets and Chirplets
Wavelets and Chirplets — via Wikimedia Commons

But the support of the function produced by a Fourier transform is the frequency domain of a sinusoidal curve. Is that the right support for this purpose? Setting aside the fact that we’re no longer talking about a probability distribution, I think it’s still important to ask that question. If we could have confidence that it makes sense to represent a sentiment time series as a sum of sinusoidal curves, then we might be able to get somewhere with this approach. The support would be correct, even if the shape of the curve over the frequency domain weren’t quite right. But why should we accept that? Why shouldn’t we be looking at functions over domains of wavelets or chirplets or any number of other possibilities? Why should the sentimental valence of the words in a novel be best represented by sine waves in particular?

I think this is a bit like using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to do topic modeling. You can use Gaussian distributions as priors for topic models. It might even be a good idea to do so, because it could allow us to get good results faster. But it’s not going to help us understand how topic modeling works in the first place. The Gaussian prior obscures what’s really going on under the hood.5 Even if we all moved over to Gaussian priors in our topic models, we’d probably still use classic LDA to get a handle on the algorithm. In this case, I think the GMM is best understood as a way to approximate LDA.

Chirplets are good at modeling objects in perspective
Chirplets are good at modeling objects in perspective — via Wikimedia Commons

And now, notice that we can use a Fourier transform to approximate any function at all. But what does doing so tell us about the function? Does it tell us what we want to know? I have no idea in this case, and I don’t think anyone else does either. It’s anyone’s guess whether the sine waves that this transform uses will correspond to anything at all familiar to us.

I think this is a crucial issue, and it’s one we can frame in terms of disciplinary continuity. Whenever we do any kind of informal reasoning based on word counts alone, we’re essentially thinking in terms of categorical distributions. And I think literary scholars would have paid attention to a well-reasoned argument based on word counts thirty years ago. If that’s right, then LDA simply gives us a way to accelerate modes of reasoning about language that we already understand. But if thirty years ago someone had argued that the movement of sentiment in a novel should be understood through sinusoidal shapes, I don’t think they would have been taken very seriously.

Admittedly, I have no strong justification for this claim, and if there’s widespread disagreement about it, then this debate will probably continue for some time. But either way, we need to start thinking very concretely about what it means to represent sentiment specifically as a sine wave. We will then be able to trust our intuitions about our own field of study to guide us.

  1. This means that to a certain degree, I’m not taking Syuzhet in the spirit with which it was offered. Jockers writes that his “primary reason for open-sourcing this code was so that others could plot some narratives of their own and see if the shapes track well with their human sense of the emotional trajectories.” I’ve not done that, even though I think it’s a sound method. We can’t depend only on statistical measurements; our conclusions need intuitive support. But I also think the theoretical questions I’m asking here are necessary to build that kind of support. 
  2. I suspected as much the moment I read about the package, though I’m certain I couldn’t have articulated my concerns without Swafford’s help. Update: And I hope it’s clear to everyone, now that the dust has settled, that Swafford has principal investigator status in this case. If she hadn’t started it, the conversation probably wouldn’t have happened at all.
  3. The support of a function is the set of inputs that it maps to nonzero outputs. 
  4. The logic of this argument is closely related to the theory of types in computer programming. One could say that a categorical sampling algorithm accepts variables of the “broken stick” type and samples from them; and one could say that when we sample from a Dirichlet distribution, the output is a variable of the “broken stick” type. 
  5. The truth of this is strongly suggested to me by the fact that the above cited paper on GMM-based topic modeling initially proposes a model based on “cut points” — a move I will admit that I understand only in vague terms as a way of getting discrete output from a continuous function. That paper looks to me like an attempt to use a vector space model for topic modeling. But as I’ll discuss in a later post, I don’t find vector space models of language especially compelling because I can’t develop a concrete interpretation of them in terms of authors, texts, and readers. 

A Random Entry

There’s a way of telling a history of the digital humanities that does not follow the well known trajectory from Father Busa’s Index Thomisticus, Mosteller and Wallace’s study of the Federalist Papers, and the Text Encoding Initiative — to Distant Reading, data mining, and the present day. It does not describe the slow transformation of a once-peripheral field into an increasingly mainstream one. Instead, it describes a series of missed opportunities.

It’s a polemical history that inverts many unspoken assumptions about the relationship between the humanities and the sciences. I’m not sure I entirely believe it myself. But I think it’s worth telling.

It starts like this: there once was a guy named Frank Rosenblatt. In 1957, Rosenblatt created the design for a device he called the perceptron. It was an early attempt at simulating the behavior of networks of biological neurons, and it initially provoked a frenzy of interest, including the following New York Times report:

The Navy revealed the embryo of an electronic computer today that it expects will be able to walk, talk, see, write, reproduce itself and be conscious of its existence.

Needless to say, the perceptron never managed to do any of those things. But what it did do was exceptional in its own way. It used to great practical effect the following insight: that many small, inaccurate rules can be combined in simple ways to create a larger, more accurate rule. This insight is now central to statistical learning theory.1 But it was not understood as particularly important at the time.

In fact, when people began to realize that the perceptron in its simplest form was limited, a backlash ensued. Marvin Minsky and Seymour Papert wrote a book called Perceptrons that enumerated the limits of simple two-layer perceptrons2; people misunderstood the book’s arguments as applying to all neural networks; and the early promise of perceptrons was forgotten.

This turn of events may have delayed the emergence of interesting machine learning technologies by a couple of decades. After the perceptron backlash, artificial intelligence researchers focused on using logic to model thought — creating ever more complex sets of logical rules that could be combined to generate new rules within a unified and coherent system of concepts. This approach was closely related to the kinds of transformational grammars that Noam Chomsky has been exploring since the 1950s, and it largely displaced statistical approaches — with a few exceptions — until the 1990s.

Unsurprisingly, Chomsky remains hostile to statistical and probabilistic approaches to machine learning and artificial intelligence. Nonetheless, there does seem to be some evidence that those approaches have gotten something right. Peter Norvig offers the following summary:

Chomsky said words to the effect that statistical language models have had some limited success in some application areas. Let’s look at computer systems that deal with language, and at the notion of “success” defined by “making accurate predictions about the world.” First, the major application areas:

  • Search engines: 100% of major players are trained and probabilistic. Their operation cannot be described by a simple function.
  • Speech recognition: 100% of major systems are trained and probabilistic…
  • Machine translation: 100% of top competitors in competitions such as NIST use statistical methods…
  • Question answering: this application is less well-developed, and many systems build heavily on the statistical and probabilistic approach used by search engines…

Now let’s look at some components that are of interest only to the computational linguist, not to the end user:

  • Word sense disambiguation: 100% of top competitors at the SemEval-2 competition used statistical techniques; most are probabilistic…
  • Coreference resolution: The majority of current systems are statistical…
  • Part of speech tagging: Most current systems are statistical…
  • Parsing: There are many parsing systems, using multiple approaches. Almost all of the most successful are statistical, and the majority are probabilistic…

Clearly, it is inaccurate to say that statistical models (and probabilistic models) have achieved limited success; rather they have achieved a dominant (although not exclusive) position.

In the past fifteen years, these approaches to machine learning have produced a number of substantial leaps forward — consider Google’s famous creation of a neural network that (in at least some sense) reinvented the concept of “cat,” or this recurrent neural network capable of imitating various styles of human handwriting. These extraordinary successes have been made possible by a dramatic increase in computing power. But without an equally dramatic shift in ways of thinking about what constitutes knowledge, that increase in computing power would have accomplished far less. What has changed is that the people doing the math have stopped trying to find logical models of knowledge by hand, and have started trying to find probabilistic models of knowledge — models that embrace heterogeneity, invite contradiction, and tolerate or even seek out ambiguity and uncertainty. As machine learning researchers have discovered, the forms these models take can be defined with mathematical precision, but the models themselves tolerate inconsistencies in ways that appear to be unbound by rigid logic.3

I’d like to suggest that by embracing that kind of knowledge, computer scientists have started walking down a trail that humanists were blazing fifty years ago.

The kind of knowledge that these machines have does not take the form of a rich, highly structured network of immutable concepts and relations with precise and predictable definitions. It takes the form of a loose assembly of inconsistent and mutually incompatible half-truths, always open to revision and transformation, and definable only by the particular distinctions it can make or elide at any given moment. It’s the kind of knowledge that many literary scholars and humanists have found quite interesting for the last few decades.

Since the decline of structuralism, humanists have been driven by a conviction that the loosely or multiply structured behaviors that constitute human culture produce important knowledge that cannot be produced in more structured ways. Those humanities scholars who remained interested in structured ways of producing knowledge — like many of the early practitioners of humanities computing — were often excluded from conversations in the humanistic mainstream.

Now something has changed. The change has certainly brought computational methods closer to the mainstream of the humanities. But we mustn’t mistake the change by imagining that humanists have somehow adopted a new scientism. A better explanation of this change is that computer scientists, as they have learned to embrace the kinds of knowledge produced by randomness, have reached a belated understanding of the value of — dare I say it? — post-structuralist ways of knowing.

It’s a shame it didn’t happen earlier.

  1. I first encountered the above formulation of this idea in the first video in Geoffrey Hinton’s online course on neural networks. But you can see it being used by other researchers (p. 21) working in machine learning on a regular basis. 
  2. In machine learning lingo, it could not learn nonlinear decision boundaries. It didn’t even have the ability to calculate the logical XOR operation on two inputs, which at the time probably made logic-based approaches look far more promising. 
  3. I say “appear” because it’s not entirely clear what it would mean to be unbound by rigid logic. The mathematical formulation of machine learning models is itself perfectly strict and internally consistent, and if it weren’t, it would be irreparably broken. Why don’t the statistical models represented by that formulation break in the same way? I suspect that it has something to do with the curse blessing of dimensionality. They don’t break because every time a contradiction appears, a new dimension appears to accommodate it in an ad-hoc way — at least until the model’s “capacity” for such adjustments is exhausted. I’m afraid I’m venturing a bit beyond my existential pay grade with these questions — but I hope this sliver of uncertainty doesn’t pierce to the core of my argument.